Pest Risk Analysis (PRA)

The process of PRA involves the categorization of pests associated with the commodity into quarantine pests; evaluation of their introduction potential; critical assessment of economic and environmental impact of their introduction; and specification of risk mitigating measures against them.

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In India, Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) is carried out for a commodity before allowing its entry into the country as per clause-3 (7) of Plant Quarantine (Regulation of import into India) Order 2003 and subsequently issue Gazette notification for such commodity for listing in appropriate Schedule attached to this Order for its entry or otherwise or phytosanitary conditions, if any. The Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) is carried out in accordance with International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) guidelines. For this purpose, normally Exporting country makes a request to the Indian Ministry of Agriculture with technical data and providing additional information/clarification as and when desired by the Department of Agriculture, Government of India. However, the importer can also file an Import PRA request in prescribed form with the Plant Protection Adviser.


Technical-Data-Requirement for PRA



Phytosanitary Conditions

Some of the Extracts of Phytosanitary regulations in Pakistan


Sl.No. Commodity Import requirements Special requirements
1 Rice Declaration that seeds are free from soil, insect pests and diseases or rendered so by effective treatment.  The seeds have been tested and found free from Ditylenchus angustus, Aphelenchoides besseyi, Tilletia barclayana, Xanthomonas oryzae, Xanthomonas oryzicola and other X spp and Tilletia tritici (Kami Bunt) Accompanied by seed testing report giving details of germination, abnormal seeds, inert matter, weed seed and seed pathology. Declare the seeds for ‘EXPERIMENAL PURPOSES WHICH HAS NO COMMERCIAL VALUE’Source:

Letter of Raziuddin Ansari, Chief Scientific Officer, Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Center, Tando Jam (5/5/1997)

IP#082 (Ref: 060058)

2 Rubber    Hevea sp.             -plant The plant has been disinfected and freed of any original soil in the country of origin and is free from pests and diseases, and consignment of plants is accompanied or covered by an official certificate specifying clearly that the above requirements has been fulfilled
3 Rubber           Hevea sp.- propagatory material except seeds Prohibited from any country in which South American leaf blight(Dothidella ulei) is present, unless, in addition to the above requirements, such plant has been grown for an adequate period at a plant quarantine station for Hevea at a place approved by the Director and situated outside the American tropics and any other country in which South American leaf blight (Dothidella ulei) is present, and each consignment of such plants is accompanied or covered by an official certificate to the effect that the above requirements have been fulfilled, and signed by the Officer-in –Charge for such quarantine station.
4 Rubber        Hevea sp.               -seeds Prohibited from any country in which South American leaf blight(Dothidella ulei) is present unless in addition to the above requirements, such seed, having been examined and again disinfected at a place approved by the Director and situated outside the American tropic and any other country in which South American leaf blight(Dothidella ulei) is present, has been repacked with new packing materials in new containers and unless each consignment of such seed is accompanied or covered by an official certificate to the effect that the above requirements have been fulfilled and signed by the Officer-in- charge of these operations.
5 Rubber        Hevea sp. (fresh or dried herbarium specimens) Prohibited, unless, in addition to the above requirements, the Director is satisfied that such plant or plant material is required for a legitimate special purpose and that such plant or plant material has been sterilized in the country of origin by a method satisfactory to the Director.
6 Rubber       other than Hevea sp. (plant or plant material) Grown in any country in which South American leaf blight(Dothidella ulei) is present, is prohibited unless written permission has been granted for each consignment of such plant or plant material by the Director and the importation is in accordance with such special conditions as may be imposed by the Director in granting such permission.
7 Rubber           Hevea sp.              (All budwood and other propagation material) Shall be dusted with sulphur before shipment and the budwood shall be dipped in a Mercuric Chloride Solution for a brief period immediately before use to eliminate Cidium hevea, and immediately after dipping the budwood shall be washed throughly in running water. (A solution suitable for this purpose consists of 0.2 per cent mercuric chloride in 50 per cent methyl (or ethyl) (alcohol). All the imported propagating material not used for budding and the packing material imported with it shall be destroyed by burning
8 Soil and any un-sterilized rooting media, including compost, humus and leaf litter
9 Solanum tuberosum/ Ware potatoes Prohibited from any country where the three serious pests, namely, Black wart (Synchytrium endobioticum), Golden Nematode(Globodera rostochiensis), Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) have either been prevalent or reported to have occurred unless they are accompanied by official certificate from the country of origin declaring that the crop from which the consignment is derived was not grown in the vicinity of unhealthy potato crops and was inspected by a duly authorized official Phytopathological Service of the country of origin and found free from all injurious insect, pests and diseases mentioned above was recorded within 2 kilometers radius of the place where the potato crop was grown during the past twelve months. (a) as far as possible, import only of seed potato resistant to wart disease shall be permitted;
(b) the importation of seed potatoes shall be permitted from those countries where the aforesaid pests and diseases are not present;
(c) import only seed potatoes certified by the Phytopathological Service of the exporting county to have been produced in areas within the country free from the pests and diseases shall be permitted;
(d) seed consignments should be free from shoots, leaves, roots and soil sticking to tubers;                                                (e) import of potato seeds should be restricted only to certified seed free from virus diseases except virus X; and
(f) import of shoots, leaves and green parts of potato shall not be permitted.
10 Sugarcane Prohibited provided that                                                                                                                                    (i) the importation is made for scientific purposes;                                                                                              (ii) that the imported planting material is grown at a recognized post entry quarantine station for an adequate period before release for large-scale planting; and
iii) that the usual official certificate accompanying the consignment should bear an additional declaration to the effect that the planting material was inspected in the field and was found to be free from injurious pests and diseases and particularly from the following diseases, namely, Sugarcane Mosaic virus, Sugarcane Fiji disease virus, Pine apple disease (Ceratocystis paradoxa) Sereh disease, gummosis, (Xanthomonos vasculorum), ratoon virus and grassy shoot virus
11 Unmanufactured tobacco (raw or cured) Prohibited unless, in addition to the usual official certificate required, it is accompanied by an additional declaration that it is free from Ephestia elutilla or that the pest does not exit in the country of origin.
12 Tobacco seedlings Prohibited
13 Tobacco seed Seed should be accompanied with the usual official certificate which must also declare that the seeds have been treated by immersion for 15 minutes in 0.1% solution of silver nitrate.
14 Citrus plant and cutting Shall not be imported unless    i) the importation is made for scientific purpose;
ii) the imported plants or cuttings are grown at a recognized post entry quarantine station for a period adequate to ensure their freedom from virus diseases; and
iii) the usual official certificate bears an additional declaration to the effect that the plants are free from Malsecco caused by Deuterophoma tracheiphila and that the disease does not exist in the country in which they are grown.
15 Coffee plants, coffee seeds and coffee beans Shall not be imported into Pakistan except with the special permission of the Director, who shall take all measures necessary to ensure that such coffee plants, seeds or beans as are permitted by him are free from plant diseases and injurious insect pests. Provided that this prohibition shall not apply to roasted and ground coffee.
16 Banana suckers and fruits Prohibited from South West of India and any other country where the diseases have been reported to have occurred to prevent the spread of Bunchy Top virus disease and Panama disease due to the fungus (Fusarium oxysoporum var.)
17 Coconut plant or plant material Prohibited from South India and other countries where the following
diseases of obscure origin are known to occur:
(a) Red Ring (Aphelenchoides cocophilus);
(b) Lethal Yellowing;
(c) Kaincope disease;
(d) Cadang cadang;
(e) Bronze leaf Wilt;
(f) Root (Wilt) disease;
(g) Guam coconut disease.
i) importation of coconut materials shall under permit be made only in small quantities, restricted to unsprouted nuts from which the perianth has been removed.
ii) the seed nuts shall be accompanied by an official certificate from an appropriate authority in the country of origin that the seeds come from trees showing no signs of diseases’
iii) upon arrival, the seeds shall be fumigated or treated by any other method considered appropriate by the Director to remove the risk of introducing insects; and
iv) the importation seed nuts shall be planted in individual containers in isolated quarantine for a period of one year. Any diseased seedlings, together with containers and planting media shall be burnt.
18 Ground nut seedling Permitted from India. Decorticated seeds may, however, be imported only under permit and usual official certificate.
19 Maize seeds Importation of seedlings from India is permitted. Seeds may be imported under permit accompanied with official certificate stating that the crop was not infected by (Xanthomonas stewart).
20 Tea (vegetative material) Permitted from India.
21 Tea seed Tea seed can be imported only under permit and shall be accompanied by an official certificate as well as by a certificate of field inspection. In addition, these shall be treated, before their shipment and after arrival, with an appropriate fungicide and insecticide.
22 Plants and bulbs of onion, garlic, shallot, leek and chive Shall not be imported into Pakistan unless these are certified as free from smut disease (Urocystis caepulae).
23 Cocoa and other Theobroma spp. (including seed in the unmanufactured state) May be imported for research and propagation. The consignment shall be accompanied by a consignor’s certificate stating fully the origin of the plants. Official certificate shall certify that they were inspected and found free of Pod rot (Monilia rorei) mealy pod (Treachysphaera fructigena) and  witches broom (Marasmius perniciosus) and that swollen shoot and other virus diseases do not occur in the country of origin. Plants are subject to inspection and fumigation at the prescribed port or point of entry.
24 Soil and Rooted Plants Soil or any other unsterilized rooting media such as compost, humus or forest litter, capable of carrying pathogens is prohibited.
25 Cotton (unginned) Prohibited
26 Cotton seed Shall not be imported in quantities exceeding one pound in weight in any one consignment and shall be fumigated at the port of entry with an appropriate fumigant; provided that if the cotton seed is accompanied by a certificate from the Government Entomologist of the country of origin to the effect that the seed and its container have been treated in such a way as to destroy all insect life, the seed shall be examined on importation by Plant Quarantine Officer and shall not be required to be re-fumigated unless such examination shows that re-fumigation is necessary.
27 Sunflower seeds Free from borne diseases namely Downy Mildew (Plasmopara halstedi), Rust (Puccinia helianthi), Sclerotinia Head rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorium), Septoria leaf spot (Septoria helianthi), Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium Spp.), as well as weed seeds


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